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Question 1: I hear people using different terms to refer to difficulties or delays in reading – most often, ‘reading disability’ or ‘dyslexia’. What is the difference between these terms?
Answer 1: Both terms refer to a specific learning disorder characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor decoding and spelling abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language (i.e., the ability to identify speech sounds and understand how they correspond to letters and words). A reading disability or dyslexia is often unexpected as it presents itself despite average to above average intelligence, rich childhood experiences and exposure to books, and good classroom teaching.